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Fixed income refers to any type of investment that yields a regular (or fixed) return.

fixed income investments, such as government,corporate,and municipal bonds and preferred stock typically pay interest or dividends on a regular schedule. In addition, bonds promise return of your principal when the bond matures, though that promise is not guaranteed in most cases.

The advantage of fixed income securities as a part of an investment portfolio is that they provide regular, predictable income. The potential disadvantage is that they do not usually increase in value as other investments, including common stock, may. As a result, they make investor more vulnerable to inflation risk.

People who invest in fixed-income securities are typically looking for a constant and secure return on their investment. For example, a retired person might like to receive a regular dependable payment to live on, but not consume principal. This person can buy a bond with their money, and use the coupon payment (the interest) as that regular dependable payment. When the bond matures or is refinanced, the person will have their money returned to them.

The fixed income markets trade in debt instruments issued by governments , governmentbacked agencies and companies, and in derivatives. Trading in the fixed income markets has beenlargely phone-based.

Interest rates change over time, based on a variety of factors, particularly rates set by the Reserve Bank of India.

The instruments traded can be classified into the following segments based on the characteristics of the identity of the issuer of these securities:


Segment Issuer Instruments
Government Central Government Zero Coupon Bonds, Coupon Bearing Bonds,Capital Index Bonds, Treasury Bills.
Public Sector Government Agencies /
Statutory Bodies
Govt. Guaranteed Bonds, Debentures
  Public Sector Units PSU Bonds, Debenture, Commercial Paper
Private Corporate Debentures, Bonds, Commercial Paper, Floating Rate Bonds, Zero Coupon Bonds, Inter-Corporate Deposits
  Banks / Financial Institutions Certificate of Deposits, Bonds
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